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4.9 . ()

: H2O ó H+ + OH-.

: = [H+] [OH-] =1,8 10-16

[H2O ].

= 25 . , .. ά(H2O) << 1, ,

[H2O ] = [H2O]. , , 1 1 (ρ =1/):

(H2O) = m (H2O) = 1000 = 55,6 / .

M (H2O) * V (H2O) 18 /* 1

(H2O) ::

* 55,6 = w = [H+] [OH-] = 10-14 , w .

[H+] [OH-] = 1 10-14 , [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 /.

[H+] > [OH-] [H+] > 7 /, .

[H+] < [OH-], [H+] < 7 /, .

- [H+] [OH-] = 1 10-14 .

, (). :

= - lg [H+].

. = - lg [H-]

= 7 ; = 7, + = 14

< 7 ; < 7, + = 14

pH > 7 ; < 7, + = 14

 

 

0―――――――――――――――――――7―――――――――――――――――――14

←―― ――→

,

() (, , , ). , , , .

1 , 500 0,245 . 1.

: : H2SO4 <=> 2H+ + SO4-2

: = -lg CM (H+), CM (H+) = n (H+) * ά * CM ().

CM () = 0,245 / 98 * 0,5 = 0,05 /

= -lg ( 1 * 2 * 0,05) = -lg 0,1 = 1.

2 5,6% , 0,9. 1,02 /.

: : <=> + + -

: = 14 = 14 (-lg (H-) * ά *CM ()).

CM () = 12 * 1,02 / 56 * 0,1 = 1,02 /

= 14 -lg ( 0,9 * 1 * 1,02) = 13.

  1. , : ) =4; ) = 11; ) = 12; ) = 8.
  2. , + : )10-3; )10-11; )10-5; ) 10-1.
  3. - : ) =3 = 2;

) =14 = 11; ) = 5 = 5; ) = 4 = 10.

  1. CI, : ) =3; ) = 5.
  2. 0,1 F.
  3. 0,1 , 1- .
  4. 0,002 HCIO.
  5. 0,02 HNO2.
  6. , 0,01 .
  7. 0,02 . 23, .
  8. 0,1 0,001 HCN.
  9. Sr()2, 200 0,074 . 1.

 

5

- , . . , .

 

2KOH + H2SO3 = K2SO3 + 2H2O 2OH- + H2SO3 = 2H2O + SO32

K2SO3+ H2O = KOH + KHSO3 SO32- + HOH = HSO3- + OH-

 

(+ -) . + , , + - .

, "" "" .

( ). 3. 3 + + . - () (+) - (CHCOOH), , , + ( ), pH >7.

3 + H2O + 3

+ + 3 + K+ + + 3

3 + + 3

Na2S . . S2 + , .

1- S2− + HS +

Na2S + 2 NaHS + NaOH

, , , , , .

2- HS+ H2S +

NaHS + 2 NaOH + H2S

( ). NH4Cl (NH4H - , l - ). l, , :

NH4+ + NH4OH + +

NH4Cl + 2 NH4OH + l

, , + c pH <7.

Zn(NO3)2 .

1- Zn2+ +ZnOH+ + H+

Zn(NO3)2 + 2ZnOHNO3 + HNO3

, + .

, H+ .

2- ZnOH+ +Zn(OH)2 + H+

ZnOHNO3 + 2Zn(OH)2 + HNO3

( ). 3NH4 . , pH ≈ 7:

NH4+ + CH3COO +NH4OH + 3

, , .

, . , .. . , , CuCO3, AI2S3 . , , , , , ,

2AICI3 +3Na2S + H2O = Al2S3 +6NaCI

Al2S3 , : Al2S3 + 62 32S + 2l()3

, .. , :

1. F()3 F(3)2, F()23 F()3.

2. Fe2(SO4)3 , F()3 .

Fe2(SO4)3 + 323 + 32 2F()3 + 32 + 3K2SO4

2Fe+3 + 332- + 3 = 2F()3↓ + 32

( ). , .. , =7.

N3 + H2O + HNO3,

K+ + N3 + + + + + + N3.

 

  1. (, ) : ll3, KNO3, CuSO4, Na2CO3, (NH4)2S? , .
  2. : BaCl2, b(N3)2, 3O4, Na2CO3, ZnBr